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Visible defects and damage
Cracked wall (brick, gas block, stone, concrete)
When a foundation settles, it often does so unevenly, placing stress on the cement joints between your homes masonry elements that can fail and lead to what are known as "stepped" cracks. Basement or semi-basement walls can be damaged by soil pressure. "Staircase" cracks are a typical sign of foundation settlement and are very common in brick and concrete wall blocks. As your home continues to settle further, vertical cracks may widen, indicating that the wall is falling outward.
Cracks can form if the roof is installed incorrectly in the house, and due to the incorrect distribution of stresses, one part of the load-bearing walls is forced to bear the entire load from the roof. This leads to stress cracks right at the base of the roof. Or the deformation seam is located incorrectly or is not there at all.
Slope of concrete walls (basement or semi-basement)
Because "pour-in" concrete walls act as a unit rather than a group of reinforced blocks, they often fail at the top instead of cracking and buckling. The collapsing wall is separated from the rest of the structure, shifting from above or below.
If the adjacent soil is poorly compacted, or an excess of water and clay has formed, they cause the soil to expand. Pressure begins to apply to the walls of your foundation in an inward direction. "Displacement" of the wall is one of the most dramatic and immediate signs of destruction.
Bending of walls (basement or semi-basement)
Walls and foundations can sometimes be damaged by soil pressure. In some cases, the weight of the soil is simply too much to be supported by the foundation wall. In other cases, soil with a high clay content expands during wet weather or frost, putting additional pressure on walls and foundations. Whatever the cause, there are several characteristic signs of foundation wall damage. This is a deflection inward or outward perpendicular to the plane of the wall, horizontal or vertical cracks.
Sagging or sloping floors
If your floors sag or "jump at the joints," its likely that theres a problem in the space underneath. Often this can be attributed to foundation pillars that have settled in a poorly compacted base or the base of the floor slab itself has weakened.
Sloping or otherwise uneven floors are a nuisance, but they can also indicate a more serious problem lurking beneath. And, as with other foundation problems, sagging floors get worse over time.
Cracks in the openings of passages, doors and windows
When poor soil conditions begin to affect your foundation, your home can settle, often unevenly, putting increased stress on part of the structure. The first signals often appear in the form of cracks in places of stress concentration - around door and window frames.
One of the first signs of structural settlement is cracks that extend from the corners of interior and exterior wall openings, such as doors, windows, and heating/ventilation vents. They clearly indicate serious problems with the foundation of your home that need to be addressed as soon as possible.
Cracks in monolithic load-bearing structures
When the pressure of the surrounding soil becomes too strong for a concrete wall, in rare cases it can crack. Unlike a block (prefab) wall, cracks usually appear on a "cast" wall that extend diagonally to its upper corners. Foundation walls can sometimes be damaged by soil pressure. In some cases, the weight of the soil is simply too much to be supported by the foundation wall. In other cases, soil with a high clay content expands during wet weather or frost, putting additional pressure on the foundation walls.
Branch of the extension (chimney, bay window, etc.)
One of the most noticeable and alarming signs of foundation subsidence is the fact that an extension (or other addition) is separated from the main structure of the house. This often happens when the foundations of the house and outbuildings settle at different rates.
One of the most frightening and dramatic signs of a settlement is the chimney that separates it from the rest of the house. Sometimes chimneys are built on a foundation that is not connected to the rest of the house, which makes it even more prone to the risk of occupancy.
Detachment of the floor or slab
Just as the ceiling can tear away from the interior wall, so can the floor, creating an unpleasant and disturbing gap. This happens when the foundation of the house or the floor itself (if it has its own separate foundation) has sunk unevenly.
When you see a gap between your floor and interior partitions, it usually means that the floor is moving down while the walls are trying their best to maintain their connection to the main frame. Sloping, uneven floors are a nuisance and an inconvenience, but they can also indicate a more serious, long-term problem with your foundation or foundation.
When the foundation and related structures settle, it causes additional stress on the frame of the house as a whole. Its structures slowly bend and take an irregular shape, even if it is imperceptible to the eye. One of the signs of this "new" tension is the gap between the inner wall and the ceiling above it. This gap is trying to tell you that there are issues brewing in your home that need your attention.
As in the case of a brick facade, plaster can crack under pressure, as the foundation of the house settles unevenly. There are two choices here (until damage to the supporting structures has started): either permanently "grease and patch" the cracks, or solve the main problem and prevent future problems.
At first, you might think that it is simply the plaster material itself (although this may be in the era of "artisan" cheapening with non-compliance with any technical conditions and regulations), which shrinks and cracks, creating no more than a cosmetic problem. However, these cracks often indicate a serious problem lurking below.
Solutions and Services
Examples of Implemented Objects
Stati-Bar spiral rod systems
Stati-Tie anchor systems